Friday, January 30, 2009
Markus Bockmuehl & Alan J. Torrance
That's all for now. I might post highlights later on.
The most thorough study of messianic interpretation in the targums is S.H. Levey, The Messiah: An Aramaic Interpretation (New York: Ktav, 1974) which conveniently provides a list of texts that give a messianic slant to (often) non-messianic texts in the Hebrew Bible. The list is cited on the hope of Israel missionary website (I'm aware of Levey's work but I confess that I haven't confirmed these citations just yet).
Gen 3.15 (Pseudo-Jonathan): "They are destined to make peace at the end, in the days of King Messiah"
Gen 3.15 (Frg.): "They will make peace with one another in the end, in the very end of days, in the days of King Messiah"
Gen 35.21 (Ps.-J): "And Jacob moved on, and pitched his tent onward to the tower of Eder, the place whence the King Messiah is destined to reveal himself at the end of days"
Gen 49.1 (Ps.-J): "As soon as the date of the End when the King Messiah would arrive was revealed to him..."
Gen 49.1 (Frg.): "For he was revealing to them all that was going to occur at the very end, the time of the Messiah."
Gen 49.10-12 (Onq.): "The transmission of dominion shall not cease from the house of Judah, nor the scribe from his children's children, forever, until the Messiah comes, to whom the Kingdom belongs, and whom nations will obey."
Gen 49.10-12 (Ps.-J): "Kings and rulers shall not cease from the house of Judah, nor scribes who teach the Torah from his seed, until the time when the King Messiah shall come, the youngest of his sons, and because of him nations shall melt away....How beautiful is the King Messiah who is destined to arise from the house of Judah...How beautiful are the eyes of King Messiah, as pure wine!"
Gen 49.10-12 (Frg.): "Kings shall not cease from the house of Judah, nor scribes who teach the Torah from his children's children, until the time of the coming of King Messiah, to whom belongs the Kingdom, and to whom all dominions of the earth shall become subservient...How beautiful is he, King Messiah, who is destined to arise from the house of Judah....How beautiful to behold are they, the eyes of the King Messiah..."
Exod 12.42 (Frg.): "Moses shall go forth from the wilderness and the King Messiah from Rome..."
Exod 17.16 (Ps.-J): "from the generation of this world, and from the generation of the Messiah, and from the generation of the World-to-Come."
Exod 40.9-11 (Ps.-J): "...and consecrate it for the crown of the kingdom of the house of Judah and King Messiah, who is destined to redeem Israel at the end of days...and from whom is to descend the Messiah son of Ephraim, by whose hand the house of Israel is to vanquish Gog and his confederates at the end of days."
Num 11.26 (Frg.): "At the end, the very end of days, Gog and Magog and their armies shall go up against Jerusalem, but they shall fall by the hand of the King Messiah."
Num 23.21 (Ps.-J): "The Memra (word) of the Lord their God is their help, and the trumpet-call of the King Messiah echoes in their midst."
Num 24.7 (Frg.): "Their king shall arise from among them, and their deliverer shall be of them and with them...Exalted shall be the kingdom of the King Messiah."
Num 24.17-24 (Onq.): "I see him, but not now; I behold him, but he is not hear; when a king shall arise out of Jacob and be anointed the Messiah out of Israel."
Num 24.17-24 (Ps.-J): "...but when a mighty king of the house of Jacob shall reign, and shall be anointed Messiah, wielding the mighty scepter of Israel....to wage war against Israel, in the days of the King Messiah...and those shall fall by the hand of the King Messiah..."
Deut 25.19 (Ps,-J.): "Even unto the days of King Messiah, you shall not forget."
Deut 30.4-9 (Ps.-J.): "and from there he shall bring you near by the hand of the King Messiah..."
I Sam 2.7-10: "He shall give strength to His king, and shall make great the kingdom of His Messiah"
I Sam 2.35: "I will raise up before Me a trustworthy priest, who shall minister according to My word and My will, and I will establish for him an enduring reign and he shall serve my Messiah all the days."
2 Sam 22.28-32: "and the deliverance which Thou shalt perform for Thy Messiah and for the remnant of Thy people..."
2 Sam 23.1-5: "...Said David, the son of Jesse, said the man who was anointed to the Messianic Kingship by the Memra of the God of Jacob...God spoke to me...and He decided to appoint for me a king, he is the Messiah, who is destined to arise and rule in the fear of the Lord..."
1 Kgs 5.13: "who were destined to rule in this world and in the world of the Messiah"
Isa 4.1-6: "At that time the Messiah of the Lord shall be a joy
Now obviously the vast majority of these glosses belong to third or fourth century textual witnesses and developed traditions about a messiah from the talmudic period. However, if we can use 12th century AD masoretic texts to reconstruct 8th century BC Israel, surely we can lean on 4th century texts/traditions to shed light on 1st century (even pre-70 AD) Palestineian Judaism (esp. since a similar messianic embellishment can be found in Old Greek texts). Generally speaking, I think where you have a Targum reading paralleled by a NT, DSS, LXX, or Philonic reading, then you have a reasonable case that the specific targumic reading is probably fairly early.
Wednesday, January 28, 2009
Tuesday, January 27, 2009
When controversy arises about the right understanding of any passage or sentence of Scripture, or for the reformation of any abuse within the Kirk of God, we ought not so much to ask what men have said or done before us, as what the Holy Ghost uniformly speaks within the body of the Scriptures and what Christ Jesus himself did and commanded. For it is agreed by all that the Spirit of God, who is the Spirit of unity, cannot contradict himself. So if the interpretation or opinion of any theologian, Kirk, or council, is contrary to the plain Word of God written in any other passage of the Scripture, it is most certain that this is not the true understanding and meaning of the Holy Ghost, although councils, realms, and nations have approved and received it. We dare not receive or admit any interpretation which is contrary to any principal point of our faith, or to any other plain text of Scripture, or to the rule of love.
Once upon a time, men could make doctrines for the Christian religion without reference to Scripture. It was called the Dark Ages. For the sake of the Reformation of the church, I urge my brothers and sisters in the Reformed churches to give serious consideration to the relationship between Scripture and Confession and not elevating (in practice especially) the latter over the former. Otherwise we will wake up one day and find ourselves enslaved to a new magisterium that claims to be biblical, but in practice, is far from it. There endeth the lesson.
Monday, January 26, 2009
1. Jesus' Confession Before Caiaphas
2. Jesus and the Centurion and the Eschatological Reversal Saying
Sunday, January 25, 2009
Saturday, January 24, 2009
London: T&T Clark, 2008.
Available in the USA from Amazon.com
Available in the UK from T&T Clark/Continuum.
3. In Search of Ancient Israel
5. The Interpretation of Scripture
6. The Synagogue
Part Two: Jesus and His Mission
12. A Brief History of Jesus
16. The Resurrection of Jesus
Part Three: Paul and His Christian Beginnings
17. On Paul the Apostle
19. The Writings of Paul
20. Paul and Christian salvation
21. Paul and the Future
22. Pauline Ethics
Part Four: The Birth of Early Christianity
25. The Emergence of Beliefs about Jesus
26. The Breach between Christianity and Judaism
27. The Symbols of the Kingdom
28. The Development of the Christian Ministry
29. Early Christian Ethics
30. The Rise of Gnosticism
31. Summary and conclusion
Appendix: The Gospels as Sources for Jesus
You can can read another review at at kata ta biblia.
Thursday, January 22, 2009
Wednesday, January 21, 2009
HT: Daniel Kirk.
Tuesday, January 20, 2009
Monday, January 19, 2009
Cited from Howard Marshall, Luke: Historian and Theologian, 221-22.
Sunday, January 18, 2009
Saturday, January 17, 2009
Oh Gosh, do I really sound like that!
Friday, January 16, 2009
8 Then the voice that I had heard from heaven spoke to me once more: "Go, take the scroll that lies open in the hand of the angel who is standing on the sea and on the land."
9 So I went to the angel and asked him to give me the little scroll. He said to me, "Take it and eat it. It will turn your stomach sour, but 'in your mouth it will be as sweet as honey.' " 10 I took the little scroll from the angel's hand and ate it. It tasted as sweet as honey in my mouth, but when I had eaten it, my stomach turned sour. 11 Then I was told, "You must prophesy again about many peoples, nations, languages and kings."
Bob Gundry asserts the presence of an angelomorphic christology in Revelation 10. He argues for a theophany with Jesus appearing in angelic form. He notes the similarity between ch. 10 where the angel has a scroll in his hand and ch. 5 where Jesus the Lamb took a seven-sealed scroll in his hand. Also, the description of the angel's feet as likened to pillars of fire recalls the divine theophany that led Israel in the wilderness. He then states:
"The great variety of Christologies in Revelation makes the presence there of angelomorphic Christology unsurprising; and the role of Yahweh's angel in the Exodus-narrative and later Jewish literature concerning it combines with the prominence of Exodus-typology throughout Revelaltion and with the promiennce of angelology elsewhere in apocalyptic literature to provide multiple impetusues for an angelomorphic Christology in Revelation comparable to angelomorphic theology in the OT and later Judaism. Inasmuch as such Christology provides an angelic connection for the saints on earth with God in heaven, a further impetus may be found in the felt need of such a connection, due to the original audience's having suffering ostracism from Jewish synagogues, Greco-Roman civic life and culture, the Roman government and its agents ... and the rich and powerful elite."
On the one hand, in the NT there is clearly a critique of christologies that venerated Jesus as merely a supreme angel (Hebrews 1 and Colossians 1.15-20, 2.18 come immediately to mind). And yet, angelomorphic christology evidently manifested itself without necessarily undermining other facets of a christology of divine identity. For case in point, the "I have come" (ἦλθον) sayings in the Gospels (e.g. Mk. 2.17) with coming + purpose have their most analogous background in the coming of angels for specific purposes (e.g. Dan. 10.11). According to Simon Gathercole, these sayings function to demonstrate Jesus' pre-existence, his heavenly origins, and his transcendence of the heaven-earth divide.
Thursday, January 15, 2009
Tuesday, January 13, 2009
HT: Mark Goodacre
Saturday, January 10, 2009
Friday, January 09, 2009
4. Alan Bandy rethinks the meaning and application of Rev. 3.20.
 Robert Jewett, “Tenement Churches and Pauline Love Feasts,” Quarterly Review 14 (1994): 44.
 Bo Reicke, Agapenfeier, 21-149.
Thursday, January 08, 2009
Scott G. Brown
Well done Stephen!
Tuesday, January 06, 2009
Monday, January 05, 2009
Finally, Barth goes in. After two hours, God comes out and says to the others: 'I've still got no idea what he is talking about!'
Thanks to my colleague Jamie Grant for that one!